Estimation Genetic Parameters and Path Coefficient Analysis for Fruit yield and its components of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill)
A field experiment was carried out during the winter seasons 2020-2021 and 2021-2022 on one of the private farms in the village of Banat Al-Hassan, southeast of the city of Samarra, in gypsum soil. The experiment included 135 experimental units with 45 treatments with three replications resulting from the interaction of organic fertilizers with three concentrations (0, 4, 8) T. D-1 and phosphate fertilizer in three concentrations (0, 80, 160) kg. D-1 and five genotypes (Local, Amigo, Dollap, Azuricum, Hannan). This study aimed to estimate the genetic parameters of the characteristics of fruit yield and its components for several sweet fennel genotypes with the effect of organic and phosphate fertilizers. The randomized complete block experiment was designed as a split plot experiment with three replications using Duncan multiple range test at the level of 0.05, and the data were analyzed pooled to find out the effect of seasons. The results showed that the highest coefficients of genetic and phenotypic variation were recorded for the biological yield, which amounted to 4359.866, 8364.365, and then the fruit yield, which amounted to 2322.135 and 3107.175, respectively. The highest inheritance rate for the fruit yield was 74.734%, followed by the biological yield with 52.124%. As for the values of genetic improvement, the highest values were recorded for the characteristic of the biological yield, which amounted to 83.901, followed by the characteristic of the fruit yield, which amounted to 73.319. As for the values of the coefficient of genetic variation, the highest values were at the number of umbellets per plant 13.36, followed by the number of fruits per umbellet 10.85. While the coefficient of determination recorded the highest values for the characteristics of weight of 1000 fruits, biological yield and fruit yield, all of which were 0.99. The genetic correlation recorded the highest value for the number of branches trait. A plant with a plant height of 1.631, followed by the number of umbellets with the number of branches. Plant reached 1,597. As for the phenotypic correlation, the highest correlation was given to the fruit yield with the weight of 1000 fruits, which reached 0.989, followed by the correlation of the weight of 1000 fruits with the number of fruits in the umbellet , which reached 0.910. The path analysis indicated that the best direct effect of the characteristic of the weight of 1000 fruits amounted to 0.729, 0.816 for the genetic and phenotypic correlation, respectively, and the highest indirect effect was for the genetic correlation of the number of branches by weight of 1000 fruits amounted to 0.932, and the phenotypic correlation of the characteristic of the number of fruits by weight of 1000 fruits amounted to 0.743.
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