Heavy Minerals Distribution in South Hammar Marsh, Southern part of Mesopotamia


  • Khaleel J. Alsudani Department of Geology, College of Science-University of Basrah
  • Badir N. Albadran Almaaqal Universities
  • Liviu Giosan Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA




Petrography, Heavy, Minerals, Hammar Marsh, and Mesopotamia.


Four sites south of Al-Hammar Marsh southern part of Mesopotamia were selected and dug at different depths. The first site is at a 2m depth, the second site is 4 m, the third and fourth sites are 9m. Twenty samples were taken, four samples were taken from each site of one and two and six samples from each site of three and four at different depths, heavy and light minerals were identified in the sandy part 0.125 mm. Petrographic study of forty thin slides under a polarized microscope. The types and proportions of these minerals were identified and diagnosed. The results of the analyzes of heavy minerals showed different types, where opaque minerals dominated with a percentage of 35.15%, followed by the transparent minerals, Chlorite, Hornblende, Muscovite, Zircon, Biotite and Epidote. The tripartite chart indicates, the studied samples are considered medium stability and close to being highly stable. The sediments of the study area were characterized by stable minerals because they contain a high percentage of opaque minerals in addition to a high percentage of ultra-stable minerals. The largest part of the sediments of the study area is the result of weathering of rocks from elevated areas in one cycle and with a rapid transport process that reduces the effect of weathering, which is inferred from the presence of unstable minerals in the sediments and that the presence of unstable minerals such as hornblende and pyroxene is evidence that the area of origin is of a climate dry or semi-dry, which means that mechanical weathering of the original rocks is more effective than chemical weathering.